Revolution 37 Clancy & Tennant 1km Madison – ©Swarbrick.com
The first Revolution of the 2012 series got underway in awesome style, with thrills and spectacular spills. This year we see a change to the format with 12 rather than 8 teams and some new sponsors show off their jerseys. Sim and I braced ourselves for a busy evening.
Elite Flying Lap:
Returning to the track were Olympians Jody Cundy, Steven Burke [IG-Sigmasport] and Ed Clancy [Rapha Condor Sharp]. They certainly got an enthusiastic welcome from the crowd and they really raised the roof in the first event [the Flying Lap], Ed took the win by nearly one second (13.009) over Jody Cundy [FACE] who put in a stunning performance (13.908) and Steven in third (14.149). A great first time appearance for the race at a Revolution (if my memory serves me correctly), and a great start to proceedings for Team Rapha.
Revolution 37 Women’s Sprint – ©Swarbrick.com
Women’s Sprint Events:
The other change to this series is that core events will stay the same throughout the season and there’ll be additional guest races that will change each meeting [they don’t count towards the Team series competition]. This round it was the turn of the ladies in a series of women’s sprints and keirin races, specifically Team GB versus the Netherlands. Team GB were represented by Victoria Williamson and Dannielle Khan [cyclist and successful speed skater] and The Netherlands; Yvonne Hijgenaar and Elis Ligtlee. The sprint crown belonged to Vitoria Williamson taking the Sprint and Keirin wins and again as part of the two woman GB sprint team.
DHL Future Stars Girls:
After the 2011 domination of the DHL Girls podium for the past two years we were missing the formidable Emily Kay as she moves onwards and upwards. Our very own Ellie Coster who finished last years series just behind Emily returns in fighting form determined to take the vacant podium position. Heather and I perused the DHL girls riders list before the racing started and she pointed out her tip for new young rider to watch, “Amy Gornall! She’s got the natural tactics, I’ve seen her race before and she’s the whole package. Destined for big things, in the same way Emily intuitively knows when to attack, it’s her first Revolution but she won’t be phased by it”, and sure enough moments later she was running away from the pack in the early stages of the first girls event; the points race. She only came away with one point in the end but she’s clearly not here to make up the numbers, Amy had consistent results throughout the evening, not a bad start for a young rookie! So watch this space. ￼Others to watch this year are Kimberley English, Lucy Harper, Emily Haycox.
Revolution 37 DHL Future Stars Girls – ©Swarbrick.com
Click play button to listen Sim’s interview with Kimberley English.
Click play button to listen Sim’s interview with Laura Cheeseman & Lucy Harper.
Jessica Roberts [Raleigh GAC] had a great points race, she won with 12 points and the nearest anyone came to her were two Emily’s (Capewell and Haycox) each with 5 point. Ellie Coster [howies] took her revenge in the 6 Lap dash but she couldn’t shake Jess Roberts off the podium, Jess took 3rd and Emily Nelson 2nd. In the final girls event Ellie Coster came 2nd in a frantic Scratch race, the winner was her team mate Emily Haycox, which sadly meant Ellie didn’t quite take the series lead. Jessica Roberts kept on fighting and hoovered up the 3rd place points to sneak the championship lead and podium for the opening Revolution, amazing tactics. The top three female riders are each separated by one point, Roberts (76), Coster (75) and Haycox (74).
DHL Future Stars Boys:
In the Boys league the competition looks like it’s going to be a tough top ten of riders scrapping it out throughout the season. Already showing their strengths are Jack Hoyle, Charlie Tanfield, Levi Moody and Leon Gledhill. In the Scratch Race it was a frantic finish with Tristan Robbins [howies] just beating IG-Sigmasports Ben Chapman to the line, closely followed by Gabriel Cullaigh of NetApp Endura. In the 6 Lap Dash Team Sportscover-Altura in their Revolution debut powered across the line with Leon Gledhill in 1st followed by team mate Levi Moody and Joe Evans [Rudy Project RT] in 3rd.
Revolution 37 – DHL Boys Points Race – ©Swarbrick.com
The drama of the evening was provided by the boys Points Race with a two part crash, caused by riders clipping wheels but throwing other riders off as they tried to avoid calamity further down the field. I tried to tot up the number of riders involved it appeared to be half a dozen in the home straight, then as they exited into the first corner just in front of me a second group came down very heavily. One of the Rapha riders did the most amazing standing tumble with his bike and landed on his feet with bike falling to the floor as he skidded to a standstill on his cleats – quite a manoeuvre. A number of riders were unable to rejoin the race including Charlie Tanfield who was on course for another good result but he picked up a nasty splinter. Charlie is one to watch in the boys competition.
Ned Boulting popped over for an interview [online shortly] between filming for the ITV4 highlights show [airing 31 October 2012 8pm] and to sign copies of his book ‘How I Won The Yellow Jumper‘ [for Cycling Shorts next competition]. So Ned… What is like to be UK’s face of cycling now? “That’s Gary Imlach, not me! You need to ask Gary Imlach what it’s like.” he said with a with his usual cheeky smile.
Elite 1km Madison Time Trial:
In the Madison the clear winners were Rapha’s Ed Clancy & Andy Tennant in a brilliant time of 56.005.
Revolution 37 Jody Cundy – ©Swarbrick.com
Elite Points Race:
Infighting in the Cycling Shorts ranks surly not? [not really] but Tom Murray said, “During the points race Jody ‘leant’ on my leg, it was captured on the camera under my saddle. Looks like I will be getting married with a Jody Cundy tyre mark down the back of my leg, it was close racing!”. In the end the race was expertly won by Owain Doull of howies with 24 points, Alex Dowsett [Team Sky] who was one lap up on Owain; came in second with 20 points and Ed Clancy in 3rd with 18. Tom made it into 6th place after his tyre tattooing with a total of 17 points. Jody didn’t finish.
Elite Australian Pursuit:
The Australian Pursuit is always a crowd pleaser and you can see heads in the team and media area centre track bobbing up and down like meerkats to watch what is a 360 degree race unfold around them. In the dying moments of the race there were three riders battling it out Andy Tennant, Alex Dowsett and Leif Lampeter [Rudy Project RT], this race is always a favourite of Leif’s and he remained out of trouble and took the win while Tennant and Dowsett battled for 2nd and 3rd respectively.
Elite Elimination Race:
The race was on early for Ed Clancy but sadly it didn’t pay off, but his effort helped create some tired legs in the pack to allow his team mate Andy Tennant to take victory over Joe Kelly. Clancy and Tennant’s experience shone through and popped some more points in the Rapha bank.
Elite Scratch Race:
In the final championship race of the evening Ed came back in style, the peloton were lapped and there was a one two battle on the line for the final sprint. Ed Clancy sealed victory for Rapha with his win. John Dibben [Rouleur] took 2nd and Christian Grasmann of Rudy Project RT came 3rd.
At the end of the evening the DHL Future Stars Team was howies. Jessica Roberts [Raleigh GAC] and Tristan Robbins [howies] now lead the individual DHL competitions.
Olympian Lizzie Armistead took to the Apron during a break in racing but not in the usual lycra look we are used to. She was interviewed by Hugh Porter. After taking second in the Olympic Road Race to Marianne Vos, Lizzie announced that she would be going head to head with the multiple World Champion at the next Revolution. This promises to be a truly epic battle.
More interviews from Revolution 37:
Click play button to listen to Sim’s interview with Ned Boulting.
Click play button to listen to Sim’s interview with Matt Holmes.
Click play button to listen to Sim’s interview with Adam & Simon Yates.
Click play button to listen to Sim’s interview with Ellie Coster & Emily Haycox.
Don’t forget you can catch the highlights show on ITV Player
You can download the full event results in PDF format by clicking here.
Revolution Series Round 2 is on 1st December at Manchester.
To find out more about the series and to grab one of the few remaining tickets left for the rest of the series visit www.cyclingrevolution.com
Andy Tennant & Ed Clancy – Team Rapha Podium – ©Anna Magrath – Cycling Shorts.
Elite Championship Standings after Round 1
1 Rapha Condor Sharp 62
2 Rouleur 53
3 Rudy Project RT 46
4 Maxgear 41
5 howies 37
6 FACE 30
7 Sportscover 28
8 IG-Sigma Sport 26
9 Team Sky 24
10 WD40 23
11 NetApp-Endura 14
12 Raleigh-GAC 6
Future Stars Teams After Round 1
Jessica Roberts & Tristan Robbins – DHL Future Stars Podium with Martyn Ashton – ©Anna Magrath – Cycling Shorts.
1 Howies 259
2 Rapha Condor Sharp 192
3 Raleigh GAC 181
4 Sportscover 180
5 IG Sigmasport 176
6 FACE Partnership 174
7 WD40 163
8 Rudy Project RT 147
9 NetApp Endura 110
10 Rouleur 109
11 Sky Procycling 107
12 Maxgear Racing 83
Future Stars Girls After Round 1
1 Jessica ROBERTS Raleigh GAC 76
2 Ellie COSTER Howies 75
3 Emily HAYCOX Howies 74
4 Emily NELSON IG Sigmasport 59
5 Lucy HARPER FACE Partnership 58
6 Beth HAYWARD Rapha Condor Sharp 57
7 Kimberley ENGLISH Rapha Condor Sharp 57
8 Victoria KINRADE Rouleur 49
9 Henrietta COLBOURNE Sportscover 48
10 Laura CHEESMAN FACE Partnership 46
11 Emily CAPEWELL WD40 45
12 Hannah BLOUNT Rudy Project RT 45
13 Lauren O’BRIEN NetApp Endura 44
14 Bethany TAYLOR Raleigh GAC 44
15 Amy GORNALL Maxgear Racing 40
16 Jessie ANSELL WD40 38
17 Naomi JOHNSTON Sky Procycling 28
18 Megan LEWIS IG Sigmasport 26
DHL Future Stars Boys
Future Stars Boys After Round 1
1 Tristan ROBBINS Howies 70
2 Levi MOODY Sportscover 68
3 Leon GLEDHILL Sportscover 64
4 Joe EVANS Rudy Project RT 64
5 James SHAW Sky Procycling 52
6 Maximilian STEDMAN IG Sigmasport 51
7 Matt GIBSON WD40 49
8 Charlie TANFIELD Rouleur 44
9 Fabio CLOSE Maxgear Racing 43
10 Ethan LEE Rapha Condor Sharp 41
11 Joe WILTSHIRE Howies 40
12 Harrison FIELDING Raleigh GAC 40
13 Benjamin CHAPMAN IG Sigmasport 40
14 Sean NOON NetApp Endura 39
15 Jake KELLY Rudy Project RT 38
16 Jack HOYLE Rapha Condor Sharp 37
17 Jack ESCRITT FACE Partnership 35
18 Harry CREW FACE Partnership 35
19 Christian BRAYBROOKE WD40 31
20 Gabriel CULLAIGH NetApp Endura 27
21 Karl BAILLIE Sky Procycling 27
22 Thomas SCAMMELL Raleigh GAC 21
23 Sean MCGOVERN Rouleur 16
Elite Flying Lap
1 CLANCY Ed Rapha Condor Sharp 13.009
2 CUNDY Jody FACE Partnership 13.908
3 BURKE Steven IG Sigmasport 14.149
4 WOOD Oliver Sportscover 14.419
5 GRASMANN Christian Rudy Project RT 14.494
6 DOULL Owain Howies 14.522
7 YATES Simon Maxgear Racing 14.534
8 LOWE Sam Rouleur 14.589
9 SCHEP Peter WD40 15.006
10 DOWSETT Alex Sky Procycling 15.075
11 MCEVOY Jonny NetApp Endura 15.481
12 HOLMES Matt Raleigh GAC 15.864
Elite 1km Madison Time Trial
1 Rapha Condor Sharp 56.005
2 Rudy Project RT 57.697
3 Rouleur 58.511
4 Howies 59.047
5 IG Sigmasport 59.628
6 WD40 59.812
7 FACE Partnership 1:00.164
8 Maxgear Racing 1:00.504
9 Sportscover 1:00.605
10 Team SKY Sky Procycling 1:01.695
11 NetApp Endura 1:03.204
12 Raleigh GAC 1:04.659
Elite Points Race
1 DOULL Owain Howies 24 -1 lap
2 DOWSETT Alex Sky Procycling 20
3 CLANCY Ed Rapha Condor Sharp 18 -1
4 DIBBEN John Rouleur 18 -1
5 GRASMANN Christian Rudy Project RT 18 -1
6 MURRAY Tom IG Sigmasport 17 -1
7 SCHEP Peter WD40 15 -1
8 YATES Simon Maxgear Racing 12 -1
9 HOLMES Matt Raleigh GAC 10 -1
10 WOOD Oliver Sportscover 10 -1
11 KELLY Joe FACE Partnership 8 -2 laps
12 TENNANT Andy Rapha Condor Sharp 3 -2
13 LAMPETER Leif Rudy Project RT 1 -2
14 YATES Adam Maxgear Racing 1 -2
15 SLATER Alistair Sportscover 1 -2
16 LOWE Sam Rouleur 0 -2
17 GEOGHEGAN-HART Tao Sky Procycling 0 -2
18 LATHAM Chris WD40 0 -2
19 BURKE Steven IG Sigmasport 0 -2
DNF SCHWARTZMAN Michael NetApp Endura 10 -2
DNF MCEVOY Jonny NetApp Endura 0 -2
DNF HARRISON Sam Howies 0 -2
DNF CUNDY Jody FACE Partnership -10 -3
DNF HAMPTON Russell Raleigh GAC -10 -3
Elite Australian Pursuit
1 LAMPETER Leif Rudy Project RT
2 TENNANT Andy Rapha Condor Sharp
3 DOWSETT Alex Sky Procycling
4 SLATER Alistair Sportscover
5 MURRAY Tom IG Sigmasport
6 CUNDY Jody FACE Partnership
7 SCHEP Peter WD40
8 HAMPTON Russell Raleigh GAC
Elite Elimination Race
1 TENNANT Andy Rapha Condor Sharp
2 KELLY Joe FACE Partnership
3 LOWE Sam Rouleur
4 YATES Simon Maxgear Racing
5 GRASMANN Christian Rudy Project RT
6 SLATER Alistair Sportscover
7 DIBBEN John Rouleur
8 WOOD Oliver Sportscover
9 YATES Adam Maxgear Racing
10 MCEVOY Jonny NetApp Endura
11 GEOGHEGAN-HART Tao Sky Procycling
12 MURRAY Tom IG Sigmasport
13 LATHAM Chris WD40
14 DOWSETT Alex Sky Procycling
15 SCHWARTZMAN Michael NetApp Endura
16 BURKE Steven IG Sigmasport
17 HAMPTON Russell Raleigh GAC
18 DOULL Owain Howies
19 SCHEP Peter WD40
20 LAMPETER Leif Rudy Project RT
21 HOLMES Matt Raleigh GAC
22 CUNDY Jody FACE Partnership
23 CLANCY Ed Rapha Condor Sharp
24 HARRISON Sam Howies
Elite Scratch Race
1 CLANCY Ed Rapha Condor Sharp
2 DIBBEN John Rouleur
3 GRASMANN Christian Rudy Project RT
4 HARRISON Sam Howies
5 YATES Adam Maxgear Racing
6 MCEVOY Jonny NetApp Endura
7 SCHEP Peter WD40
8 DOWSETT Alex Sky Procycling
9 YATES Simon Maxgear Racing
10 TENNANT Andy Rapha Condor Sharp
11 LOWE Sam Rouleur
12 LAMPETER Leif Rudy Project RT
13 MURRAY Tom IG Sigmasport
14 KELLY Joe FACE Partnership
15 LATHAM Chris WD40
16 GEOGHEGAN-HART Tao Sky Procycling
17 HOLMES Matt Raleigh GAC
18 HAMPTON Russell Raleigh GAC
19 WOOD Oliver Sportscover
20 BURKE Steven IG Sigmasport
21 SLATER Alistair Sportscover
22 DOULL Owain Howies
DNF CUNDY Jody FACE Partnership
DNF SCHWARTZMAN Michael NetApp Endura
DHL Future Stars Girls
1 ROBERTS Jessica Raleigh GAC 12 points
2 CAPEWELL Emily WD40 5
3 HAYCOX Emily Howies 5
4 COLBOURNE Henrietta Sportscover 3
5 HAYWARD Beth Rapha Condor Sharp 3
6 COSTER Ellie Howies 3
7 ENGLISH Kimberley Rapha Condor Sharp 3
8 ANSELL Jessie WD40 2
9 HARPER Lucy FACE Partnership 2
10 TAYLOR Bethany Raleigh GAC 2
11 O’BRIEN Lauren NetApp Endura 1
12 NELSON Emily IG Sigmasport 1
13 GORNALL Amy Maxgear Racing 1
14 CHEESMAN Laura FACE Partnership 1
15 KINRADE Victoria Rouleur
16 BLOUNT Hannah Rudy Project RT
17 LEWIS Megan IG Sigmasport
18 JOHNSTON Naomi Sky Procycling
6 Lap Dash
1 COSTER Ellie Howies 2:03.409
2 NELSON Emily IG Sigmasport
3 ROBERTS Jessica Raleigh GAC
4 ENGLISH Kimberley Rapha Condor Sharp
5 HAYCOX Emily Howies
6 KINRADE Victoria Rouleur
7 HARPER Lucy FACE Partnership
8 O’BRIEN Lauren NetApp Endura
9 CHEESMAN Laura FACE Partnership
10 BLOUNT Hannah Rudy Project RT
11 HAYWARD Beth Rapha Condor Sharp
12 GORNALL Amy Maxgear Racing
13 TAYLOR Bethany Raleigh GAC
14 COLBOURNE Henrietta Sportscover
15 JOHNSTON Naomi Sky Procycling
16 CAPEWELL Emily WD40
17 LEWIS Megan IG Sigmasport
18 ANSELL Jessie WD40
1 HAYCOX Emily Howies
2 COSTER Ellie Howies
3 ROBERTS Jessica Raleigh GAC
4 HARPER Lucy FACE Partnership
5 HAYWARD Beth Rapha Condor Sharp
6 NELSON Emily IG Sigmasport
7 BLOUNT Hannah Rudy Project RT
8 KINRADE Victoria Rouleur
9 CHEESMAN Laura FACE Partnership
10 ENGLISH Kimberley Rapha Condor Sharp
11 TAYLOR Bethany Raleigh GAC
12 COLBOURNE Henrietta Sportscover
13 GORNALL Amy Maxgear Racing
14 ANSELL Jessie WD40
15 O’BRIEN Lauren NetApp Endura
16 CAPEWELL Emily WD40
17 JOHNSTON Naomi Sky Procycling
18 LEWIS Megan IG Sigmasport
DHL Future Stars Boys
1 ROBBINS Tristan Howies
2 CHAPMAN Benjamin IG Sigmasport
3 CULLAIGH Gabriel NetApp Endura
4 TANFIELD Charlie Rouleur
5 EVANS Joe Rudy Project RT
6 NOON Sean NetApp Endura
7 WILTSHIRE Joe Howies
8 SHAW James Sky Procycling
9 STEDMAN Maximilian IG Sigmasport
10 ESCRITT Jack FACE Partnership
11 GLEDHILL Leon Sportscover
12 GIBSON Matt WD40
13 MOODY Levi Sportscover
14 CREW Harry FACE Partnership
15 KELLY Jake Rudy Project RT
16 LEE Ethan Rapha Condor Sharp
17 FIELDING Harrison Raleigh GAC
18 SCAMMELL Thomas Raleigh GAC
19 CLOSE Fabio Maxgear Racing
20 BRAYBROOKE Christian WD40
21 MCGOVERN Sean Rouleur
22 BAILLIE Karl Sky Procycling
23 HOYLE Jack Rapha Condor Sharp
6 Lap Dash
1 GLEDHILL Leon Sportscover 1:45.498
2 MOODY Levi Sportscover
3 EVANS Joe Rudy Project RT
4 TANFIELD Charlie Rouleur
5 CLOSE Fabio Maxgear Racing
6 SHAW James Sky Procycling
7 ROBBINS Tristan Howies
8 KELLY Jake Rudy Project RT
9 STEDMAN Maximilian IG Sigmasport
10 CREW Harry FACE Partnership
11 CHAPMAN Benjamin IG Sigmasport
12 BRAYBROOKE Christian WD40
13 LEE Ethan Rapha Condor Sharp
14 HOYLE Jack Rapha Condor Sharp
15 BAILLIE Karl Sky Procycling
16 GIBSON Matt WD40
17 ESCRITT Jack FACE Partnership
18 FIELDING Harrison Raleigh GAC
19 SCAMMELL Thomas Raleigh GAC
20 NOON Sean NetApp Endura
21 WILTSHIRE Joe Howies
22 CULLAIGH Gabriel NetApp Endura
23 MCGOVERN Sean Rouleur
1 MOODY Levi Sportscover 9 points
2 GIBSON Matt WD40 5
3 FIELDING Harrison Raleigh GAC 5
4 HOYLE Jack Rapha Condor Sharp 5
5 ROBBINS Tristan Howies 4
6 EVANS Joe Rudy Project RT 3
7 GLEDHILL Leon Sportscover 3
8 LEE Ethan Rapha Condor Sharp 3
9 STEDMAN Maximilian IG Sigmasport 2
10 WILTSHIRE Joe Howies 1
11 CLOSE Fabio Maxgear Racing 1
12 SHAW James Sky Procycling 1
13 NOON Sean NetApp Endura
14 BAILLIE Karl Sky Procycling
15 BRAYBROOKE Christian WD40
16 ESCRITT Jack FACE Partnership
17 KELLY Jake Rudy Project RT
18 MCGOVERN Sean Rouleur
19 CREW Harry FACE Partnership
20 SCAMMELL Thomas Raleigh GAC
DNF CHAPMAN Benjamin IG Sigmasport 2
DNF CULLAIGH Gabriel NetApp Endura
DNF TANFIELD Charlie Rouleur
Revolution Sprint Omnium
200m Time Trial
1 WILLIAMSON Victoria Great Britain 11.700
2 KAHN Danielle Great Britain 12.002
3 LIGTLEE Elis Netherlands 12.009
4 HIJGENAAR Yvonne Netherlands 12.072
1 WILLIAMSON Victoria Great Britain 12.074
2 HIJGENAAR Yvonne Netherlands
1 LIGTLEE Elis Netherlands 12.228
2 KAHN Danielle Great Britain
1 WILLIAMSON Victoria Great Britain 12.091
2 LIGTLEE Elis Netherlands
3 HIJGENAAR Yvonne Netherlands 12.407
4 KAHN Danielle Great Britain
1 Great Britain (WILLIAMSON Victoria, KAHN Danielle) 35.703
2 Netherlands (HIJGENAAR Yvonne, LIGTLEE Elis) 36.195
1 WILLIAMSON Victoria Great Britain
2 KAHN Danielle Great Britain
3 HIJGENAAR Yvonne Netherlands
4 LIGTLEE Elis Netherlands
We got our hands on a selection of Cliff Bars to review for you and Sim and Heather took on the taste and energy test.
I had my first taste of CLIF Bars whilst taking part in the Deloitte Ride Across Britain last year – the chocolate chip version kept me going from John O’Groats all the way to Glasgow, so when I was asked to review CLIF bars for CyclingShorts, I thought why not?
So, a large selection of CLIF Bars in all different flavours made their way through my door – There was the chocolate chip version which I had tried before, then Crunchy Peanut Butter flavour, followed by Oatmeal Raisin Walnut, then Chocolate Almond Fudge, with White Chocolate Macadamia Nut bringing up the rear.
I must say that some of them sounded slightly exotic and I wasn’t convinced that I would like them, but I tried them all anyway (it’s a tough job, but somebody has to do it!)…
So, what did I think? Well, some of the flavours and the texture of the bars are better than others. For example, whilst the Oatmeal Raisin Walnut version may appeal to some due to the lower calorific content than the others, I found that unfortunately it was a bit disappointing – too dry to have on its own, especially trying to eat it going uphill. However, I was pleasantly surprised that the most exotic-sounding one (in my humble opinion), the White Chocolate Macadamia Nut was in actual fact the best of the bunch, mainly due to the addition of white chocolate pieces compensating for the dry nature of the bars in general. However, the Crunchy Peanut Butter flavour came a close second, as CLIF have worked hard to make that bar more chewy and therefore slightly more moist.
The Chocolate Almond Fudge was a bit disappointing too – I thought that it would be the CLIF Bar version of Bakewell Tart but it just seemed difficult to eat, as did the Chocolate Chip version. The bars really fill a hole and contain on average 245 kcals per bar and provide plenty of slow release energy from the seeds and grains used.
CLIF pride themselves on using wholesome and nutritious ingredients and having no trans fats, hydrogenated fats or high fructose corn syrup. It should be noted though that under UK regulations CLIF Bar cannot state that the bars are organic or contain no transfats.
The wrappers are foil and although this keeps the contents fresh, it can hurt your teeth trying to rip it open (I can’t ride in a group of people non-handed so I have to use my teeth – but don’t tell my dentist!) however if you want weight for your £1, these are definitely substantial bars – you can feel the heft when you pick one up!
So, for marks out of 100, overall I would probably give the CLIF bar range 70% (good start, but some improvements needed) although I would give the White Chocolate Macadamia version 85%.
I confess to being rather skeptical about using Cliff Bars as I have had mixed experiences using energy or nutrition bars when riding, to the point that I have reverted to using trusty old jam and bread on most rides. My experience is that some are gooey and sticky, others sickly and worse still some that encouraged the production of some rather unpleasant gases, which was not good in the bunkhouse when all ten of us had been using the same product with the same effect! So needless to say I was a tad apprehensive when I was among a group of friends taking part in the Manchester 100 who would be testing a range of Cliff Bars. Fortunately we would not all be staying in the same room at the end of the day!
On the day we had four different flavours, Chocolate Chip, Chocolate Almond fudge, White Chocolate Macadamia Nut and Oatmeal Raisin Walnut, to test and we split them across the group of Team Parrotti riders. My son plumped for the Chocolate Chip and I tried the White Chocolate Macadamia Nut.
Out on the road we were particularly impressed with the ease of opening the packaging and the fact that the bar stayed intact allowing us to nibble on the bar and keep popping it back into our back pockets without making a mess. Which is great if you want to use them for a little pick up as you are riding.
The consistency of the bars is moist but not too gooey and this works really well when riding allowing you to take small bites without the bar falling apart. However you do need a sweet tooth as the bars are very very sweet but then that is not surprising considering nearly a third of the bar is sugar (between 21g – 23g for a 68g bar). This was the general experience of all Team Parrotti riders who tested the bars during our day out at the Manchester 100. We all agreed that the bars are worth carrying as a back up source of energy but we all felt that they are a little too sweet to use as a regular nutrition.
Of the flavours tested the clear favourite was Chocolate Chip with White Chocolate Macadamia Nut a close second. The least favourite was Chocolate Almond fudge which was incredible sweet and rather sickly.
The bottom line has to be ‘would we use Cliff Bars again?’ and the answer is a resounding yes. They provide a good energy boost that be easily nibbled on when needed and they are really easy to digest with no adverse effects (if you know what I mean!).
To learn more about CLIF Bars and their extensive range of products visit their website: www.clifbar.co.uk
Cycling Shorts overall rating for the Cliff Bar Range:
Sex, Lies and Handlebar Tape
The remarkable life of Jacques Anquetil, the first five-times winner of the Tour de France
by Paul Howard
The Times ‘An extraordinary biography’
The Times certainly hit the nail on the head with that one! This is certainly a very extraordinary biography. I would perhaps have re-titled the book, Sex and Drugs and ride a bike, rephrasing one of my favourite songs written by the amazing wordsmith Ian Dury. Paul Howard’s biography is certainly full of all three!
Sex, Lies and Handlebar Tape unlike many of the other cycling biographies and autobiographies I have read is not an easy read. This is not due to the content of the book but rather in the style in which it is written. It is clear that Paul Howard has spent time carefully researching the facts in the book. He has done this by reading other author’s books and by talking to people around Anquetil at the time. However to ensure the reader is aware of the depth of research the book can at times be as enjoyable to read as a history text book, not totally riveting!
I found the early chapters really hard going and was not sure if I could persevere, but the desire to get under the skin of such a great cyclist drove me forward. Paul Howard deals well with all areas of Anquetil’s life, from his calculating riding style, which did not win over all the French public, to his unusual personal life and loves.
Through the book you certainly get an impression that, actually what happens today is not really that different to Anquetil’s era but somehow it has become more accepted that deals are struck for teams to work together, rider support is bought, and that it is OK to ride to a carefully calculated marginal time gain plan. Lance Armstrong and other greats certainly did this. The darkside however is perhaps the accepted use of drugs to aid performance and Anquetil’s stand against testing and his refusal to be tested after his final hour record, leading to the lack of ratification for the record. Funny to think that Paul Kimmage has become a cycling world outcast for writing about the same thing, when in reality it was all ready in the open.
The hardest part of the book to ‘get your head round’ is that fact that his wife allowed, maybe even suggested, they use Anquetils’ stepdaughter to act as a surrogate mother. This lead to a twelve year relationship, with mother and daughter. Finally imploding and leading to Anquetil developing a long term relationship with his stepson’s wife! I wonder what Jeremy Kyle would have made of that?!
Sex, Lies and Handlebar Tape is most certainly an extraordinary biography and if you are willing to work at reading it, overall it is well worth the effort. You get a chance to get the inside story of one of cycling’s greatest ever Tour de France riders. Persevere, overall it was forth the effort.
Sex, Lies and Handlebar Tape – The remarkable life of Jacques Anquetil, the first five-times winner of the Tour de France
Author: Paul Howard
Published by Mainstream Publishing
Available in Hardback, Paperback & eBook
RRP £18.99 (Hardback), RRP £8.99 (Paperback), RRP £8.99 (eBook)
With the recent BBC Panorama documentary in mind about the research that underpins sales and marketing of sports drinks in the UK, I have become some what sceptical about the claims made by manufacturers relating to the performance enhancement that the general population of active sports people and in our case active cyclists can gain from the use of sports drinks and nutrition products. People believe it super effective during their workouts, having even become famous as the joe rogan diet included drinking sports drinks in his workout routine. And that’s what the researcher is trying to analyze.
For those who did not see the programme, in a nutshell, the BBC had linked up with a group of researchers at Oxford University who wanted to test the validity of the research and data that is currently being used to sell Lucozade Sport and Powerade.
As we may know all research findings are based on statistical analysis and we all know about statistics, ‘there are lies, damn lies and statistics’! I should know I used to use research findings and materials data to sell a specific engineering product. In the past making claims that our product out performed the competition. Well it did in certain areas but not always the one the customer wanted to use it in, but who was I to enlighten them to that fact!
The outcome of the team at Oxford appeared to suggest that sports drinks offer no significant advantage to the average population vs drinking water. In fact they went even further and suggested the the ingestion of 23 grammes of sugar per 500ml of fluid could be detrimental to the target audience, children!
But perhaps this is where Nuun is different as the name might suggest it has nuun of the ‘nasty’ calories found in sugar, although this does mean the drink does not provide an energy source but then it is does not claim to do this.
So what does the American manufacturer actually claim? Well here is their promotional information on the company website:-
Nuun branded products’ formulation is based on years of research and feedback from some of the world’s top academic and practicing experts in the field of sports medicine—specifically in dehydration and hyponatremia. Nuun’s development is focused on the three most important aspects of proper hydration:
SPEED OF ABSORPTION
One of the most important characteristics of what you drink while you’re active is the speed at which your body can absorb it. The concentration of dissolved salts and sugars (osmolarity, for those more technically inclined) determines how fast the drink can cross from your digestive track into your bloodstream, where it can re-hydrate and replenish you. Nuun branded products produce a hypotonic solution, so your body absorbs Nuun faster than the leading “sports drinks” or even water alone. This gives your body the ability to restore optimal water and electrolyte balance quickly and efficiently.
The American College of Sports Medicine recommends that people who are active for more than one hour get 500–700mg of sodium for every liter of water they consume. This is up to three times the sodium amount that traditional “sports drinks” provide. Some experts in the field believe that sodium concentrations should be closer to the 700–1000mg range. In addition to other critical electrolytes, Nuun Active Hydration provides 700mg of sodium for every liter of drink to ensure that you are adequately replenishing your body to help you perform at your best and stay healthy. U Natural Hydration is an all-natural line of electrolyte and vitamin-enhanced drink tablets with half the sodium as Nuun Active Hydration. U Natural Hydration is sweetened with stevia and contains only 7 calories per tab. It is ideal for less intense activities, so it would be great to take with your paradigmpeptides, a perfect way to stay balanced and quenched during a workout.
Nuun branded products contain virtually no carbohydrates (less than 1g) for a couple of reasons. Ingesting drinks containing high levels of carbohydrates can slow the rate at which your stomach empties, delaying the absorbance of the water and electrolytes. Carbs also increase the osmolality of what you’re drinking, delaying absorption beyond the stomach.
If you’re participating in intense exercises lasting more than 60 to 90 minutes, you should consume carbohydrates to ensure energy levels for working muscles. But how you do that is up to you. Everyone manages energy consumption differently, whether it’s with sports bars, gel or other sources of calories and carbohydrates.
Other then the reference to the American College of Sports Medicine no specific references appear to be easily found on the company website. The marketing blurb continues with:-
WHY IS HYDRATION IMPORTANT?
Hydration is important for your overall health, regardless of your daily activity level. A large percentage of your body is made up of water, and proper hydration means ensuring that your body maintains that level of water, as we are constantly losing water. Water helps your body regulate temperature, transport nutrients to organs and tissues, transport oxygen to cells, remove waste, and protect your joins and organs.
Hydration, however, is more than just drinking water. Proper hydration is essential for concentration and attention to detail, whether you’re running a marathon, or a marathon of errands. Even a small decline in dehydration levels can result in a decrease of mental and physical performance.
HOW CAN I STAY HYDRATED WITHOUT THE UNNECESSARY SUGARS?
Nuun is hydration, without the sugar – a refreshing alternative to many of the options in the beverage market today. On average, Americans consume 130 pounds of sugar per person, per year. Sugar has been directly related to heart disease, metabolic syndrome and diabetes.
Beverages containing large amounts of sugar can accelerate the dehydration process. Sugar requires water from the body in order to be digested, leaving less water to properly fuel muscle and brain function. With zero sugars and only 8 calories in each 16oz. bottle, Nuun is a smart choice for hydration.
All very interesting, but wait what is this about sugar causing dehydration, this a new one to me. I always thought that the key to rehydration was to drink water with the addition of salt and sugar. Well that is certainly what I remember being told would save lives in third world countries, if only they could have clean water, salt and sugar!
But wait please remember that this product was developed for the American market and the key words to pick up on are:-
On average, Americans consume 130 pounds of sugar per person, per year. Sugar has been directly related to heart disease, metabolic syndrome and diabetes.
A quick internet search revealed via the Livestrong website that sugar can dehydrate you if you get very high levels in you blood, this can happen if you are, guess what, yes you guessed it Diabetic! (Read more: www.livestrong.com)
So with all this in mind and one over riding memory of the Panorama programme, Graeme Obree describing his feed and hydration regime for his hour records, water and jam butties!
So down to the testing; how does Nuun perform out on the road?
The first thing to comment on is the Nuun bottle that came with the test product, it is very good, and continues to be a favourite of mine after two weeks of daily rides. It has an easy to use soft mouth piece, wide mouth to allow for easy cleaning and is made of a soft plastic that allows easy squeeze to get a good squirt of hydration product.
The test arena for the hydration tabs is the sunny Vendee (Atlantic Coast France) and the region that is one of the key sponsors of the Europcar Team. Testing has been conducted on medium paced rides of over 60 minutes in temperature approaching and in excess of 30oC! Prime weather for dehydration and salt imbalance, the type of weather that can easily promote post ride cramp.
The three flavours on test were, Strawberry, Lemon and Lime and the main sample of Grape. Nuun recommended dosage is one tab per 500ml bottle, but being a tight Yorkshireman, I typically only use one tab (habit was developed using High 5 Zero) so my initial test rides are all based on a single tab.
The tabs are incredibly easy to use, drop one into the bottle and add water. Step back and watch them fizz away to their hearts content. With a little agitation they dissolve very quickly, so much easier then a powder mix and no mess. The tab format also means that will be easy to carry on a long ride and mix on route. Nice. This as far as I am concerned is an absolutely major benefit to using tabs vs powders. They are really easy to transport anywhere in the world and better still take up less cupboard space, this means less hassle from the one who is to be obeyed (aka the wife)!
Ride 1 Strawberry.
72 mins early morning start 7.30am temperature 22oC and climbing.
Initial reaction was that the flavour would probably be the bottom of my list, a little insipid to say the least but I would never normally drink anything strawberry flavoured so a little harsh maybe and especially as I am using a half dose.
The product seemed to work during and post ride and I would certainly say that it was more palatable then plain water.
Ride 2 Lemon and Lime.
78 mins fast paced afternoon ride 4pm temperature 32oC
This was a much better flavour for my taste even at half strength a very smooth taste and no after taste of bicarb (can sometimes get this with other tab products) over all quite impressed. No issues with cramp during the ride.
Further rides using Grape
A range of easy and hard rides across similar temperatures to the first two tests.
At half strength the grape did not taste very strong so I took the plunge and used the recommended one tabs per 500ml. Bingo! the taste was great and more importantly no cramp during or post rides. The biggest benefit for me, from past experience, is the fluids were good to drink even when the bottle temperature had risen during the ride. I normally find it unpleasant to drink warm water mid to end of a long warm ride. Adding Nuun changes this and the tepid fluid stays pleasant to drink and actually encourage you to maintain fluid balance.
So much for the use now for the science behind the product or at least the labeling and list of ingredients. Now be honest after all the hype, advertising and endorsements listed for the product you use how many of you actually read the ingredients and find out what they do or are used for? I confess I have never done so, but in view of the TV documentary I thought it might be enlightening!
On each packet is found the following:-
Nuun turns water into a refreshing sports hydration drink (hmm this smacks of the Apprentice style sales pitch!!)
According to the label Nuun are electrolyte enhanced drinks tabs with zero sugar and only 8 calories per tab.
The full nutrition data is listed for a tab in 240ml as:-
Sodium 173mg (2%)
Potassium 50mg (1%)
Total Carbs <1g
Vitamin C 19mg (31%)
Riboflavin 250mg (15%)
Calcium 6.5mg (1%)
Magnesium 12.5mg (3%)
(percentages based on a 2000 calorie diet)
Ingredients: citric acid, sorbitol, sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate, sodium benzonate, natural flavours, polyethylene glycol, magnesium oxide, sodium acetate, ascorbic acid, acesulfame potassium, calcium carbonate, natural colour, riboflavin 5-phosphate.
Hmm that all sounds very tasty, if not a little industrial!
A couple of the ingredients leapt out at me immediately:
Sorbitol is that not a laxative? I seem to remember in my childhood falling foul of eating too many sorbitol mints, hmm not a pleasant memory.
Sodium Bicarbonate (baking soda), is this not the active ingredient in popular Plink Plink fizz pick me up and headache tablet? I remember a science experiment at school where our teacher demonstrated that over 50% of the Alka Salksa was actually Bicarb and was only added to give the good old fizz for branding!
Sodium Benzonate, is that not related to benzene and is that not found in petrol and is it a cancer causing chemical?
Well that is what got me thinking about what all these chemical actually are and you can find out too my reading the ingredients appendix. (data sourced from Wikipedia so reader beware).
Back to the product itself and the burning question Does it work? and would I buy it?
Does it work? yes it does create a very palatable hydration drink with the benefit of no added sugar. Does it keep cramp at bay and provide good salt balance. Used at full strength Nuun works very well and does what it says on the Tin (or plastic tube in Nuun’s case) Would I buy it? Yes. It really does turn water into a great flavoured hydration drink. I would recommend you try Nuun for yourself, you might just find you like it and that it suits your needs well.
Tablets RRP: £6.00 for a pack of 12 Tablets.
Nuun Bottle RRP:£4.00
Flavours: Banana, Tropical, Lemon Tea, Citrus Fruit, Fruit Punch, Strawberry Lemonade, Kona Kola, Orange, Grape & Tri-Berry.
Citric acid is a weak organic acid. It is a natural preservative/conservative and is also used to add an acidic, or sour, taste to foods and soft drinks. In biochemistry, the conjugate base of citric acid, citrate, is important as an intermediate in the citric acid cycle, and therefore occurs in the metabolism of virtually all living things. Citric acid is a commodity chemical, and more than a million tonnes are produced every year by fermentation. It is used mainly as an acidifier, as a flavoring, and as a chelating agent.
Sorbitol, also known as glucitol, is a sugar alcohol, which the human body metabolizes slowly. It can be obtained by reduction of glucose, changing the aldehyde group to a hydroxyl group. Sorbitol is found in apples, pears, peaches, and prunes. It is synthesized by sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and converted to fructose by succinate dehydrogenase and sorbitol dehydrogenase. Succinate dehydrogenase is an enzyme complex that participates in the citric acid cycle.
Sorbitol is a sugar substitute. It may be listed under the inactive ingredients listed for some foods and products. Sorbitol is referred to as a nutritive sweetener because it provides dietary energy: 2.6 kilocalories (11 kilojoules) per gram versus the average 4 kilocalories (17 kilojoules) for carbohydrates. It is often used in diet foods (including diet drinks and ice cream), mints, cough syrups, and sugar-free chewing gum.
It also occurs naturally in many stone fruits and berries from trees of the genus Sorbus.
Sorbitol can be used as a non-stimulant laxative via an oral suspension or enema. As with other sugar alcohols, gastrointestinal distress may result when food products that contain sorbitol are consumed. Sorbitol exerts its laxative effect by drawing water into the large intestine, thereby stimulating bowel movements. Sorbitol has been determined safe for use by the elderly, although it is not recommended without consultation with a clinician. Sorbitol is found in some dried fruits and may contribute to the laxative effects of prunes.
Sodium bicarbonate or sodium hydrogen carbonate is the chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3. Sodium bicarbonate is a white solid that is crystalline but often appears as a fine powder. It has a slightly salty, alkaline taste resembling that of washing soda (sodium carbonate). The natural mineral form is nahcolite. It is a component of the mineral natron and is found dissolved in many mineral springs.
Since it has long been known and is widely used, the salt has many related names such as baking soda, bread soda, cooking soda, and bicarbonate of soda. In colloquial usage, its name is shortened to sodium bicarb, bicarb soda, or simply bicarb. The word saleratus, from Latin sal æratus meaning aerated salt, was widely used in the 19th century for both sodium bicarbonate and potassium bicarbonate. The term has now fallen out of common usage.
Baking soda in sports
Small amounts of sodium bicarbonate have been shown to be useful as a supplement for athletes in speed-based events, like middle distance running, lasting from about one to seven minutes. But overdose is a serious risk because sodium bicarbonate is slightly toxic and in particular gastrointestinal irritation is of concern. Additionally this practice causes a significant increase in dietary sodium.
Sodium carbonate (also known as washing soda or soda ash), Na2CO3 is a sodium salt of carbonic acid. It most commonly occurs as a crystalline heptahydrate, which readily effloresces to form a white powder, the monohydrate. Sodium carbonate is domestically well known for its everyday use as a water softener. It can be extracted from the ashes of many plants. It is synthetically produced in large quantities from salt (sodium chloride) and limestone in a process known as the Solvay process.
Sodium carbonate is also used in the production of sherbet powder. The cooling and fizzing sensation results from the endothermic reaction between sodium carbonate and a weak acid, commonly citric acid, releasing carbon dioxide gas, which occurs when the sherbet is moistened by saliva.
Sodium benzoate has the chemical formula NaC6H5CO2; it is a widely used food preservative, with E number E211. It is the sodium salt of benzoic acid and exists in this form when dissolved in water. It can be produced by reacting sodium hydroxide with benzoic acid.
Sodium benzoate is a preservative. It is bacteriostatic and fungistatic under acidic conditions. It is most widely used in acidic foods such as salad dressings (vinegar), carbonated drinks (carbonic acid), jams and fruit juices (citric acid), pickles (vinegar), and condiments. It is also used as a preservative in medicines and cosmetics. As a food additive, sodium benzoate has the E number E211.
It is also used in fireworks as a fuel in whistle mix, a powder that emits a whistling noise when compressed into a tube and ignited. The fuel is also one of the fastest burning rocket fuels and provides a lot of thrust and smoke. It does have its downsides: there is a high danger of explosion when the fuel is sharply compressed because of the fuel’s sensitivity to impact.
Sodium benzoate is produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium hydroxide. Benzoic acid is detectable at low levels in cranberries, prunes, greengage plums, cinnamon, ripe cloves, and apples. Though benzoic acid is a more effective preservative, sodium benzoate is more commonly used as a food additive because benzoic acid does not dissolve well in water. Concentration as a preservative is limited by the FDA in the U.S. to 0.1% by weight. The International Programme on Chemical Safety found no adverse effects in humans at doses of 647–825 mg/kg of body weight per day.
Cats have a significantly lower tolerance against benzoic acid and its salts than rats and mice. Sodium benzoate is, however, allowed as an animal food additive at up to 0.1%, according to AFCO‘s official publication.
Safety and health
Main article: Benzene in soft drinks
In combination with ascorbic acid (vitamin C, E300), sodium benzoate and potassium benzoate form benzene, a known carcinogen. However, in most beverages that contain both, the benzene levels are below those considered dangerous for consumption. Heat, light and shelf life can affect the rate at which benzene is formed.
Professor Peter W. Piper of the University of Sheffield claims that sodium benzoate by itself can damage and inactivate vital parts of DNA in a cell’s mitochondria. Mitochondria consume oxygen to generate ATP, the body’s energy currency. If they are damaged due to disease, the cell malfunctions and may enter apoptosis.
Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a polyether compound with many applications from industrial manufacturing to medicine. The structure of PEG is (note the repeated element in parentheses):
PEG is also known as polyethylene oxide (PEO) or polyoxyethylene (POE), depending on its molecular weight, and under the tradename Carbowax.
- PEG is commonly used as a precipitant for plasmid DNA isolation and protein crystallisation. X-ray diffraction of protein crystals can reveal the atomic structure of proteins.
- Polymer segments derived from PEG polyols impart flexibility to polyurethanes for applications such as elastomeric fibres (spandex) and foam cushions.
- In microbiology, PEG precipitation is used to concentrate viruses. PEG is also used to induce complete fusion (mixing of both inner and outer leaflets) in liposomes reconstituted in vitro.
- Gene therapy vectors (such as viruses) can be PEG-coated to shield them from inactivation by the immune system and to de-target them from organs where they may build up and have a toxic effect. The size of the PEG polymer has been shown to be important, with large polymers achieving the best immune protection.
- PEG is a component of stable nucleic acid lipid particles (SNALPs) used to package siRNA for use in vivo.
- In blood banking, PEG is used as a potentiator to enhance detection of antigens or antibodies.
- When working with phenol in a laboratory situation, PEG 300 can be used on phenol skin burns to deactivate any residual phenol.
- It is the basis of many skin creams, as cetomacrogol, and sexual lubricants, frequently combined with glycerin.
- PEG is used in a number of toothpastes as a dispersant; it binds water and helps keep xanthan gum uniformly distributed throughout the toothpaste. It is also under investigation for use in body armour and tattoos to monitor diabetes.
- Low-molecular-weight (PEG 400) is used in Hewlett-Packard designjet printers as an ink solvent and lubricant for the print heads.
- PEG is also one of the main ingredients in paintball fill because it is thick and flexible. However, as early as 2006, some Paintball manufacturers have been substituting cheaper alternatives for PEG.
- PEG is a major ingredient in e-liquid, used in e-cigarettes. It is generally used as a 30%-50% proportion of the liquid that is vaporized. Its use is designed to give a smoother effect to the vaping action.
- PEG is also as a food additive used as an anti-foaming agent; its INS number is 1521 or E1521 in the EU.
Magnesium oxide (MgO), or magnesia, is a white hygroscopic solid mineral that occurs naturally as periclase and is a source of magnesium (see also oxide). It has an empirical formula of MgO and consists of a lattice of Mg2+ ions and O2− ions held together by ionic bonds. Magnesium hydroxide forms in the presence of water (MgO + H2O → Mg(OH)2), but it can be reversed by heating it to separate moisture.
Magnesium oxide was historically known as magnesia alba (literally, the white mineral from Magnesia), to differentiate it from magnesia negra, a black mineral containing what is now known as manganese.
In medicine, magnesium oxide is used for relief of heartburn and sore stomach, as an antacid, magnesium supplement, and as a short-term laxative. It is also used to improve symptoms of indigestion. Side effects of magnesium oxide may include nausea and cramping. In quantities sufficient to obtain a laxative effect, side effects of long-term use include enteroliths resulting in bowel obstruction.
Sodium acetate, CH3COONa, also abbreviated NaOAc, also sodium ethanoate, is the sodium salt of acetic acid. This colourless salt has a wide range of uses.
Sodium acetate may be added to foods as a seasoning. It may be used in the form of sodium diacetate — a 1:1 complex of sodium acetate and acetic acid, given the E-number E262. A frequent use of this form is in salt and vinegar chips in the United States. Many US brands, including national manufacturer Frito-Lay, sell “salt and vinegar flavoured” chips that use this chemical, with lactose and smaller percentages of other chemicals, in lieu of a real salt and vinegar preparation.
Ascorbic acid is a naturally occurring organic compound with antioxidant properties. It is a white solid, but impure samples can appear yellowish. It dissolves well in water to give mildly acidic solutions. Ascorbic acid is one form (“vitamer“) of vitamin C. It was originally called L-hexuronic acid, but when it was found to have vitamin C activity in animals (“vitamin C” being defined as a vitamin activity, not then a specific substance), the suggestion was made to rename L-hexuronic acid. The new name for L-hexuronic acid is derived from a- (meaning “no”) and scorbutus (scurvy), the disease caused by a deficiency of vitamin C. Because it is derived from glucose, many animals are able to produce it, but humans require it as part of their nutrition. Other vertebrates lacking the ability to produce ascorbic acid include other primates, guinea pigs, teleost fishes, bats, and birds, all of which require it as a dietary micronutrient (that is, a vitamin).
Chemically, there exists a D-ascorbic acid which does not occur in nature. It may be synthesized artificially. It has identical antioxidant properties to L-ascorbic acid, yet has far less vitamin C activity (although not quite zero). This fact is taken as evidence that the antioxidant properties of ascorbic acid are only a small part of its effective vitamin activity. Specifically, L-ascorbate is known to participate in many specific enzyme reactions which require the correct epimer (L-ascorbate and not D-ascorbate).
Ascorbic acid and its sodium, potassium, and calcium salts are commonly used as antioxidantfood additives. These compounds are water-soluble and thus cannot protect fats from oxidation: For this purpose, the fat-solubleesters of ascorbic acid with long-chain fatty acids (ascorbyl palmitate or ascorbyl stearate) can be used as food antioxidants. Eighty percent of the world’s supply of ascorbic acid is produced in China.
The relevant European food additive E numbers are
It creates volatile compounds when mixed with glucose and amino acids in 90 Celsius.
It is a cofactor in tyrosineoxidation.
Acesulfame potassium (ay-see-SUHL-faym) is a calorie-free artificial sweetener, also known as Acesulfame K or Ace K (K being the symbol for potassium), and marketed under the trade names Sunett and Sweet One. In the European Union, it is known under the E number (additive code) E950. It was discovered accidentally in 1967 by German chemist Karl Clauss at Hoechst AG (now Nutrinova). In chemical structure, acesulfame potassium is the potassium salt of 6-methyl-1,2,3-oxathiazine-4(3H)-one 2,2-dioxide. It is a white crystalline powder with molecular formula C4H4KNO4S and a molecular weight of 201.24 g/mol.
Acesulfame K is 200 times sweeter than sucrose (table sugar), as sweet as aspartame, about 2/3 as sweet as saccharin, and 1/3 as sweet as sucralose. Like saccharin, it has a slightly bitter aftertaste, especially at high concentrations. Kraft Foods has patented the use of sodium ferulate to mask acesulfame’s aftertaste. Acesulfame K is often blended with other sweeteners (usually sucralose or aspartame). These blends are reputed to give a more sugar-like taste whereby each sweetener masks the other’s aftertaste, and/or exhibits a synergistic effect by which the blend is sweeter than its components.
Unlike aspartame, acesulfame K is stable under heat, even under moderately acidic or basic conditions, allowing it to be used in baking, or in products that require a long shelf life. In carbonated drinks, it is almost always used in conjunction with another sweetener, such as aspartame or sucralose. It is also used as a sweetener in protein shakes and pharmaceutical products, especially chewable and liquid medications, where it can make the active ingredients more palatable.
As with other artificial sweeteners, there is concern over the safety of acesulfame potassium. Although studies of these sweeteners show varying and controversial degrees of dietary safety, the United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) has approved their general use. Critics say acesulfame potassium has not been studied adequately and may be carcinogenic, although these claims have been dismissed by the US FDA and by equivalent authorities in the European Union.
Some potential effects associated with Acesulfame K have appeared in animal studies. Acesulfame K has been shown to stimulate dose-dependent insulin secretion in rats, though no hypoglycemia was observed.
One rodent study showed no increased incidence of tumors in response to administration of acesulfame K. In this study, conducted by the National Toxicology Program, 60 rats were given acesulfame K for 40 weeks, making up as much as 3% of their total diet (which would be equivalent to a human consuming 1,343 12-oz cans of artificially sweetened soda every day). There was no sign that these (or lower) levels of acesulfame K increased the rats’ risk of cancer or other neoplasms. However, a similar study conducted with p53 haploinsufficient mice showed signs of carcinogenicity in males but not females. Further research in terms of food safety has been recommended.
Research suggests that acesulfame K may affect prenatal development. One study appeared to show that acesulfame K is ingested by mice through their mother’s amniotic fluid or breast milk, and that this influences the adult mouse’s sweet preference.
Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3. It is a common substance found in rocks in all parts of the world, and is the main component of shells of marine organisms, snails, coal balls, pearls, and eggshells. Calcium carbonate is the active ingredient in agricultural lime, and is usually the principal cause of hard water. It is commonly used medicinally as a calcium supplement or as an antacid, but excessive consumption can be hazardous.
Health and dietary applications
500-milligram calcium supplements made from calcium carbonate
Calcium carbonate is widely used medicinally as an inexpensive dietary calcium supplement or gastric antacid. It may be used as a phosphate binder for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia (primarily in patients with chronic renal failure). It is also used in the pharmaceutical industry as an inert filler for tablets and other pharmaceuticals.
Calcium carbonate is known among IBS sufferers to help reduce diarrhea. Some individuals report being symptom-free since starting supplementation. The process in which calcium carbonate reduces diarrhea is by binding water in the bowel, which creates a stool that is firmer and better formed. Calcium carbonate supplements are often combined with magnesium in various proportions. This should be taken into account as magnesium is known to cause diarrhea.
Calcium carbonate is used in the production of toothpaste and has seen a resurgence as a food preservative and color retainer, when used in or with products such as organic apples or food.
Excess calcium from supplements, fortified food and high-calcium diets, can cause the milk-alkali syndrome, which has serious toxicity and can be fatal. In 1915, Bertram Sippy introduced the “Sippy regimen” of hourly ingestion of milk and cream, and the gradual addition of eggs and cooked cereal, for 10 days, combined with alkaline powders, which provided symptomatic relief for peptic ulcer disease. Over the next several decades, the Sippy regimen resulted in renal failure, alkalosis, and hypercalcemia, mostly in men with peptic ulcer disease. These adverse effects were reversed when the regimen stopped, but it was fatal in some patients with protracted vomiting. Milk alkali syndrome declined in men after effective treatments for peptic ulcer disease arose. During the past 15 years, it has been reported in women taking calcium supplements above the recommended range of 1.2 to 1.5 g daily, for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, and is exacerbated by dehydration. Calcium has been added to over-the-counter products, which contributes to inadvertent excessive intake. Excessive calcium intake can lead to hypercalcemia, complications of which include vomiting, abdominal pain and altered mental status.
As a food additive it is designated E170; INS number 170. Used as an acidity regulator, anticaking agent, stabiliser or colour it is approved for usage in the EU, USA and Australia and New Zealand. It is used in some soy milk products as a source of dietary calcium; one study suggests that calcium carbonate might be as bioavailable as the calcium in cow’s milk. Calcium carbonate is also used as a firming agent in many canned or bottled vegetable products.
Flavin mononucleotide (FMN), or riboflavin-5′-phosphate, is a biomolecule produced from riboflavin (vitamin B2) by the enzyme riboflavin kinase and functions as prosthetic group of various oxidoreductases including NADH dehydrogenase as well as cofactor in biological blue-light photo receptors. During catalytic cycle, the reversible interconversion of oxidized (FMN), semiquinone (FMNH•) and reduced (FMNH2) forms occurs in the various oxidoreductases. FMN is a stronger oxidizing agent than NADH and is particularly useful because it can take part in both one- and two-electron transfers. In its role as blue-light photo receptor, (oxidized) FMN stands out from the ‘conventional’ photo receptors as the signaling state and not an E/Z isomerization.
It is the principal form in which riboflavin is found in cells and tissues. It requires more energy to produce, but is more soluble than riboflavin.
Flavin mononucleotide is also used as an orange-red food colour additive, designated in Europe as the E number E101a.
E106, a very closely related food dye, is riboflavin-5′-phosphate sodium salt, which consists mainly of the monosodium salt of the 5′-monophosphate ester of riboflavin. It is rapidly turned to free riboflavin after ingestion. It is found in many foods for babies and young children as well as jams, milk products, and sweets and sugar products.